I recently had the opportunity to do an interview with Bo Bennett, co-host of the Toastmasters Podcast. Click the image to access the free audio.
I recently had the opportunity to do an interview with Bo Bennett, co-host of the Toastmasters Podcast. Click the image to access the free audio.
I’m a huge fan of TED Talks. However, TED is not the only game in town for watching great speakers with great ideas. Here are some other free options:
Comment: I attend this excellent conference every year. It is nearly identical to TED and even features many of the same speakers. Compared to TED’s broader mandate, 99u is a bit more focused on design, creativity, entrepreneurship, and personal development.
2. Big Think
Comment: These are very short videos – typically under 5 minutes – focused on leadership and delivered by high powered executives and creative luminaries.
3. Business Innovation Factory (BIF)
Comment: Similar to TED albeit more innovation focused though you find social themes there too.
Comment: Leadership interviews parsed into 2-minute segments (which can be irritating if you want to watch whole thing at once).
Comment: Creative Mornings is what would happen if TED loosened the reigns completely. Very raw. Some great videos and some very rough ones. The link above sorts by popularity to bring the best stuff to the top.
Comment: Just like TED only with a hippie vibe and focused on personal development / inspiration. Talks are typically 20 to 30 minutes long.
Comment: TED-like videos with some of the same speakers – albeit more focused on creativity, entrepreneurship, and customer experience.
8. Google Talks
Comment: Google hosts artists, authors, political candidates, chefs, … you name it. These are longer talks, typically 45 minutes to 1 hour.
Comment: Just like TED in pretty much every way.
Comment: 5 minute talks (20 slides, 15 seconds per slide). Quality variation is huge so sort by most popular.
11. INK Talks
Comment: India’s version of TED (in fact, they are partnered with TED).
12. The Moth
Comment: Personal storytelling at its very best. The Moth is all about people vulnerably sharing the pivotal moments in their lives. Funny and inspiring.
Comment: 20 slides x 20 seconds per slide (just like Ignite). Quality variation is huge so sort by most popular.
Comment: The breadth, depth, and style of the talks are identical to TED – though the organization claims to be more outcome focused than its more well known cousin.
15. The RSA
Comment: 20 minute talks focused on burning social / societal issues. They are also the brilliant minds behind the RSAnimate videos which transform TED (and other talks) into animated storyboards.
16. Stanford eCorner
Comment: Outstanding videos on entrepreneurship – typically 45 mins to 1 hour long.
10 steps for crafting a story to pitch your entrepreneurial startup idea to investors using Square, AirBnB, and DropBox as examples.
While “give people an objective and get out of the way” sounds like great advice, it is not always sound advice. As with most things in life, the degree of leadership involvement is nuanced and highly dependent on the employee and the situation. I learned this the hard way a few years ago when I received feedback that I was treating every person on my team as low on will but high on skill. This meant I was the polar opposite of a micro-manager – often inspiring people but leaving them to stumble in the dark. That was when I learned the invaluable lesson of situational leadership – to adapt coaching to the skill and the will of the individual on the project.
This being annual review season at my company (and many others), I have been thinking more deeply about what role a team leader should play. Or, more specifically, when a leader should intervene and when a leader should get out of the way. Here are the questions I ask myself:
Most organizations have a clear top-level business objective. In for-profit business, the objective is quite obviously profit maximization with a healthy dose of ethics and global citizenship mixed in. In the not-for-profit space, the objective typically relates to boosting the quality and quantity of life (human or non-human).
Some employees have reached the point where they are able to identify a potential set of granular objectives that serve the top-level corporate objective, prioritize among them, and focus. In those cases, I get out of the way. In the other cases, I do not simply tell people what to do; rather, I teach them the skill of identifying and prioritizing objectives so that they too can learn to lead.
I’m a huge fan of all of Chip & Dan Heath’s work, and in particular, their book Switch. In that book, the Heath brothers use the leadership metaphor of a rider on an elephant headed down a path toward a destination. The destination is the WHAT from the first question above. The emotional elephant and the analytical rider are two sides of the motivation coin. Here, I’ll use the more clinical terms – intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
If an employee has strong motivation, I get out of the way. If they do not, I first turn to intrinsic motivation since that is easier to address in real-time and (according to research cited in Daniel Pink’s excellent book Drive) is the more effective lever for the knowledge-workers I interact with on a daily basis. When I sense a person’s intrinsic motivation is low, I relate our team’s North Star, our vision, to the individual’s specific wants and needs. Moreover, I try to express my love for what we are doing in the hope that my belief and my enthusiasm are infectious.
I rarely have to adjust extrinsic motivation in the type of work that I do. However, if you need to do so, remember that extrinsic motivation can come in the form of carrots or sticks. The sweetest carrot is obvious – money; however, there are non-monetary carrots such as extra vacation time and appropriate gifts. The big stick is job security – something that should only be threatened as a last resort in response to serious, well-documented performance issues. A more subtle stick is restating the cultural norms (or actual rules) of your team.
My big mistake when I first led people more than a decade ago was assuming everybody was highly skilled. When they are, I get out of the way. However, when the individual does not know the methods or best practices to excel on their objective, they will appreciate learning HOW to do something. As with coaching in other areas, your goal as a leader should be to coach people how to figure out how so that they can be independent on future projects. You can do that directly or using the Socratic method.
By way of example, I strive to coach people to become experts at bright spot analysis (another concept from Switch). In broad brush strokes, the process is as follows:
a. Pick an objective (ex: increase sales productivity)
b. Pick a population of people that influence the objective (ex: sales managers)
c. Using an objective measure (ex: average sales per team member over a period of time), stack rank the population to identify the top 10% and the bottom 10%
d. Figure out what the top performers are doing that the bottom performers are not. You will be able to partially figure this out using existing quantitative data. However, you will also need to tease out qualitative insights through anthropological observation (i.e. ride-alongs, role-plays) or interviews where you are careful to ask the two populations to describe actual recent experiences rather than abstract, inspirational behaviors. (I very rarely conduct large-scale electronic surveys unless I have no alternative. When I do conduct such surveys, I ask only the questions that inform burning, specific decisions. This helps keep the surveys as short as possible – often just one or two questions.)
e. Conduct a pilot to verify that (i) I have synthesized the right best practices (ii) I have found the right approach to spread those best practices. Ensure that whatever you are piloting is practical and economically attractive at scale. Define the scope of the pilot. Identify what constitutes success from the pilot sufficient to broaden to full-scale launch.
f. Scale-up once the pilot is successful. (And yes, if the best practices are urgent, obvious, easy to deploy, and low-risk, you can skip the pilot).
Referring back to the Heath brothers’ metaphor in Switch, leaders may need to “shape the path.” If the individual has the resources (financial, human, etc.) and tools to get the job done, I get out of the way. If not, leaders must intervene to remove such obstacles.
Relationships are often the biggest obstacles to address since people must influence at a distance in order to move their projects forward. Sometimes, leaders merely need to help associates identify stakeholders and partners who will be instrumental in making the project a success. However, due to ever-present politics or lack of positional authority, associates often need leaders to take more active role.
If an individual if proficient at establishing metrics (leading- and lagging- key performance indicators) and at defining milestones, I get out of the way. If not, intervene by coaching them how to manage projects in this way so that they can lead independently in the future.
If you boil all this down, you only have to remember two things. The first is that great leaders adapt their involvement to each individual in each situation. The second is that great leaders teach their people to fish. When you do that, you empower generations of future leaders instead of simply empowering employees.
In the field of entrepreneurship, and more broadly in the arena of new product development, the term minimum viable product (MVP) is very much in vogue. Coined by Frank Robinson and popularized by Eric Ries and Steve Blank, an MVP is a prototype with just enough features for early adopters to test and provide feedback to the developers.
I’m always on the hunt for new metaphors and it struck me today that this concept translates nicely into presentation design and knowledge-work in general. Instead of minimum viable product, consider the minimum viable presentation.
Imagine a person senior to you, perhaps your boss or another executive, asks you to create a presentation or requests some data. They have asked you for a WHAT and maybe they were even prescriptive about HOW to assemble the information. Regardless of their positional authority, you have the right and the obligation to work with them to understand the business objective (problem or opportunity) they are trying to address.
What strategic lever are they trying to pull? What decision are they trying to make that will lead to incremental action? In the course of problem solving to find the “WHY,” you may find: (a) the request was spot-on, (b) the request was not necessary, (c) the request was reasonable but there is a better way to address it, (d) there is an even bigger question you agree to go after. By analogy, start-ups must identify the core customer need their product addresses.
With the “WHY” established, turn your attention to the designing (at least in broad brushstrokes) what the optimal solution would look like. For the executive who requested the information from you, perhaps the solution is a mobile-friendly, real-time dashboard with alerting and visualization. For start-ups, the analogy is scoping the ultimate product to build if time and money were no object.
Finally park the optimal solution in the back of your mind and build the minimum viable presentation. This is the presentation that answers just the WHY… no more and no less. Often, you do not need a presentation at all – a conversation, Excel spreadsheet, or email may suffice. Even if you need to create slides, just address the WHY in the most efficient way possible. As you build the “infrastructure” to answer the question, knowledge of the optimal solution tells you where to apply brute force and where to design for reuse or expansion.
With so many opinions expressed about public speaking (something I too am guilty of), I was excited to see Dave Paradi’s fact-based survey exploring the most annoying behaviors of presenters.
With Dave’s permission, I have taken the annoyances he found and transformed them into actionable tips:
- Have a clear, primary purpose (to inform, persuade, inspire, or entertain)
- Have a single message framed from the audience’s perspective as: To (what) so that (why/outcome/benefit). This will help eliminate information overload and ‘data dump.’
- Apply a narrative flow that supports your purpose & message
- Customize your content (at least to a degree) for your specific audience
- Instead of reading text from slides, use them as a launching and landing point
- Limit the amount of time you spend facing the screen
- Rehearse to figure out what slides belong in your presentation. Delete or Appendix the rest. Never skip slides.
- “Mute” your slide by going to black (hit the “b” key) when you want to focus your audience’s attention on you
- Use pauses to eliminate filler words
- Plan where you will stand and where you will move to (avoid standing projector’s line-of-sight)
- Make sure text is large enough to be read easily by people seated in the back of the room
- Proofread your slides to eliminate typos
- Use short bursts of text (or bullets), not full sentences
- Use the simplest diagram possible to support/prove the message of a slide. (Tables are rarely the best choice.)
- Use a harmonious color palette and apply intentional use of contrast
- Avoid clip-art and random images that just dress-up a slide
- Use video sparingly and only when contextually relevant (and well tested in the environment/room you present in)
- Builds are fine but avoid decorative animation
- Ask yourself if the topic warrants a presentation or could be handled more efficiently with an email or a conversation
- Recognize that design software can be used to create presentations or documents. Create one or the other depending on where and how you will use it.
Dave Paradi also has a couple great, free self-assessments. Check them out at:
Check out my free public speaking test by clicking here.
You can access your results on-screen immediately and also download a report with actionable advice. The results allow you to compare yourself with the aggregated, anonymous results of others.
Leave a comment to let me know what you think of it.
Though I spend most of my time reading books about public speaking and leadership, every so often I consume five books on a topic far outside of what I have exposed myself to in the past. While I do this mostly for intellectual enjoyment, I often find concepts and techniques to apply to public speaking. Over the years, I used this approach to explore screenplay writing, fiction, and comedy, three genres that are gold mines for speakers.
Inspired by the fact that Steve Jobs left “The Autobiography of a Yogi” as a final gift to mourners at his funeral, I recently decided to read up on Eastern religion – particularly Buddhism. While I have gained no more than a rudimentary, ‘arm-chair’ understanding, the core concepts of mindfulness and compassion that comprise enlightenment reminded me of the journey toward public speaking mastery.
To explore this analogy, I’ll use Noel Burch’s ‘Conscious Competence” learning model:
Stage I – Unconscious incompetence: This stage is best described as obliviousness. A public speaker in this stage would stand up without fear, deliver a terrible presentation, and then sit back down again without awareness of how poor their speech went. While I have not encountered many people in this stage, I imagine there are two sub-types: (a) those deluded about their ability (b) those who could care less about public speaking.
Stage II – Conscious incompetence: In this stage, an individual knows public speaking is a critical part of sharing ideas worth spreading (i.e. they know “WHY”), but they have not yet learned “HOW” to be an effective communicator. From what I can tell, this is where most people are. This is also the stage where natural speaking anxiety causes fear.
Stage III – Conscious competence: I like to refer to individuals in this stage as “expert speakers.” They know the why and the how of public speaking. They know, for example, to speak loud and slow to be authoritative or to make deliberate eye-contact for 3 seconds in a random pattern.
Stage IV – Unconscious competence: Here is where Buddhism comes back into the picture. Individuals in this stage are “enlightened speakers;” they are “experts who speak” rather than “expert speakers.” In my own experience, this is actually a state rather than a stage since, like enlightenment, it happens in the delightful situations where you are both fully mindful and compassionate. It is a state Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes as Flow. To be mindful in the public speaking context is to be one with your content, free of expectations of what may or may not result from your speech. To be compassionate in the public speaking context is to speak purely in the service of your audience and without self-judgement.
The fascinating thing to me about being in the Stage IV, enlightened speaking state is that you do not get there by learning. You get there by unlearning. Watch a very young child speak; they inspire with great passion and no fear. Enlightened speaking is inside all of us; we simply have share ideas we are passionate about with people we care about and without regard for what came before or what will come after.
Lately, I have been getting a lot of questions from people wanting to know how I write, publish, and market my books, especially my most successful book, “How To Deliver a TED Talk.” I love helping others become more effective communicators so I’m happy to share the insights and techniques I have learned along the way. This post, Part 3 in a three-part series, covers how to market a nonfiction book. The other posts are:
At this point, I am assuming that you have written and published a well-edited nonfiction book that has material people value and want to share with their friends. However, no one knows that your book exists. To help people find it, you have to start giving
I’m a strong believer in the hypothesis that if you give great content away, people will want to buy your book. They are not rewarding you. Rather, they hope (and it should be true) that what is in your book is as valuable as what you give away for free. I give content away by blogging at least once a week. In case you are wondering, I use and recommend the Focus child theme on the Genesis Framework in WordPress. (I used to use and love the Thesis theme, but the new version became way too technically complex even though I used to be a programmer.)
There are tons of books written on platform building for people entering the ‘expert economy.’ Three of my favorites are Michael Hyatt’s Platform: Get Noticed in a Noisy World, Brenden Bruchard’s The Millionaire Messenger: Make a Difference and a Fortune Sharing Your Advice, and Michael Port’s Book Yourself Solid.
It is going to take a while for a critical-mass of people to find (and hopefully share) the content you are giving away on your own platform. While you build your content empire, give content away freely on other people’s platforms. My main way of doing this is serving as a guest on other people’s Podcasts. One of my favorite podcasters is Moe Abdou at 33Voices. At least at this stage, I’m happy to be interviewed by any Podcaster independent of the size of their audience.
Every once in a blue moon, I write a guest blog post but I try to reserve written content for my own platform.
I maintain a list of the top influencers (mostly bloggers and other writers) on public speaking. My go-to resource is Guy Kawaskaki’s Alltop which aggregates and ranks blogs in every imaginable category.
Once I identify an influencer, I reach out with a very personalized email to ask if they would like a copy of my book to do an objective review. Most say yes since they are as hungry to get content as I am to give it. Plus, we are all fans of each other’s work.
Next, I mail the influencer two physical copies with a handwritten note. Even though this process is more time consuming and expensive than sending an eBook, I send physical copies because it shows I care. I send two copies so that the reviewer can read one and pass one on to a friend.
Outside of influencers who regularly write reviews, I do NOT give books away. With my first book, What Great Looks Like, I gave hundreds of books away and ended up with two reviews. When you give a book away, it will collect dust. When people buy your book, they read it since they have skin in the game. If they enjoy it, they may reward you with a review.
Though I do not have scientific proof, I believe that building a strong, early flow of positive reviews on Amazon is a major driver of book sales, triggering a virtuous cycle – reviews drive sales which drive reviews which drive sales…
Your friends and family will likely provide the first reviews. The next wave will come from the influencers to whom you sent books. Then, when you book takes off, everyone else will jump in. As an added touch, I do my best to track down people (usually via LinkedIn) who gave me four or five star reviews to thank them.
Some people will give you 1 or 2 star reviews. You just have to accept that some people will hate your work. Do not try to change their opinion. And, don’t feel hurt; as Seth Godin would say, it is a good sign you created something remarkable when some people love your work and others loath.
Once you get some traction, reinvest some of your profits by signing up for NetGalley. They provide their community with access to your book in exchange for objective reviews. The NetGalley reviewers are quite active and influential so your reviews will show up on Amazon, GoodReads, and blogs.
NetGalley is the only “service” of this type that I use. I avoid all forms of paid reviews, including Kirkus.
Early on, you are probably going to need to speak for free at every venue you are invited to. Go for it and have fun. You should be able to sell books from the back of the room (if you do that, make sure you use a credit card processing device like Square and sell at a price equal to or less than what people can buy your book for through any other channel). Once you are established, you can start speaking “for fee” and bundle your books with the deal.
Please add a comment if you agree or disagree or if I missed anything.
Lately, I have been getting a lot of questions from people wanting to know how I write, publish, and market my books, especially my most successful book, “How To Deliver a TED Talk.” I love helping others become more effective communicators so I’m happy to share the insights and techniques I have learned along the way. This post, Part 2 in a three-part series, covers how to publish a nonfiction book. The other posts are:
If you followed my advice in my last post, How to Write a Nonfiction Book, then you have a manuscript with basic formatting. Unless, you want to release garbage, you need feedback on your book. Start with friends and family, but engage a developmental editor if you can afford it. A good developmental editor knows your genre and will provide you with actionable feedback. A developmental editor gives you notes and suggestions; they don’t actually touch your text.
Once the content of the book is in great shape, pay for line editing which includes proofreading to find typos and copy-editing to fix issues at the sentence and paragraph level. I rely on the amazing PJ Dempsey for line editing.
Finally, pay a professional to do your interior layout and cover design. When I self-published, I use CreateSpace’s custom services for this.
Congratulations, you finished writing your book and you should be proud. Now, you want the world to read it. If you are a celebrity with a following of hundreds of thousands or millions of adoring fans, you can skip this tip. For everyone else, I recommend self-publishing since it is nearly impossible to get a large, traditional publisher to acquire a book. (You can always switch to traditional publishing later if your book takes off – that is what I did.)
If you actually have a choice to make between self-publishing versus traditional publishing, here is what you need to know:
I use CreateSpace for print-on-demand and Kindle conversion since they are tightly integrated with the rest of Amazon and have exceptional quality and price. Once a book gains traction, I expand distribution in other eBook channels using BookBaby. If a book is really cooking, then I use Amazon ACX for Audible conversion. Since audio quality is so critical, I rely on Kevin Pierce on the ACX platform for his voice and production skills.
Some people have asked me about print-on-demand versus regular printing. I emphatically recommend print-on-demand for two reasons. First, you can fix typos easily with print-on-demand. Second, you do not have a maintain inventory or handle shipping since your distribution partner does that for you. Yes, you get less profit per book with print-on-demand but that tradeoff is a pittance for the two big benefits, especially since odds are (just being honest) you are not going to sell as many copies as you think you will.
There is plenty of incredible research available on book pricing. This presentation is among my favorites:
In my opinion, the right initial price point for a self-published non-fiction book is $2.99 Kindle/eBook and $9.95 print book. If you start higher, you risk pricing yourself out of the market. If your book is very successful, you can always increase the price over time without offending your early buyers.
You don’t need an agent if you are self-publishing. However, if you decide to ignore my advice and pursue traditional publishing, then you need an agent who is well connected in your genre to shop your book around (do not waste your time trying to engage publishers directly). The best advice I can offer is to look in the acknowledgements of your favorite books. Most authors thank their agents. You can then reach out directly to the author who will usually be glad to facilitate an introduction to the agent. It is almost as hard to get an agent to represent you as it is to get a publisher to take on your book so expect a lot of rejection. Also, reputable agents do not charge you; instead, they take a well-earned cut of your eventual earnings (usually 10%). My agent is Jackie Meyer from Whimsy Literary Agency.
Once you get an agent, get an attorney. You should have the attorney review the agent’s contract before you sign it. Then, if you get a publisher interested in your book, you need the attorney to review the publishing contract. Do not skip this tip if you get to this phase or you will be penny-wise and pound-foolish. My publishing attorney is Maura Wogan from Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz PC.
Please add a comment if you agree or disagree or if I missed anything.
How to Deliver a TED Talk: Secrets of the World's Most Inspiring Presentations, revised and expanded new edition, with a foreword by Richard St. John and an afterword by Simon Sinek (Paperback)By (author): Jeremey Donovan